WHO DISEASE STAGING SYSTEM

Table 2. WHO Clinical Staging of HIV/AIDS for Adults and Adolescents
Primary HIV Infection
  • Asymptomatic
  • Acute retroviral syndrome

Clinical Stage 1
  • Asymptomatic
  • Persistent generalized lymphadenopathy

Clinical Stage 2
  • Moderate unexplained weight loss (<10% of presumed or measured body weight)
  • Recurrent respiratory infections (sinusitis, tonsillitis, otitis media, and pharyngitis)
  • Herpes zoster
  • Angular cheilitis
  • Recurrent oral ulceration
  • Papular pruritic eruptions
  • Seborrheic dermatitis
  • Fungal nail infections

Clinical Stage 3
  • Unexplained severe weight loss (>10% of presumed or measured body weight)
  • Unexplained chronic diarrhea for >1 month
  • Unexplained persistent fever for >1 month (>37.6ºC, intermittent or constant)
  • Persistent oral candidiasis (thrush)
  • Oral hairy leukoplakia
  • Pulmonary tuberculosis (current)
  • Severe presumed bacterial infections (e.g., pneumonia, empyema, pyomyositis, bone or joint infection, meningitis, bacteremia)
  • Acute necrotizing ulcerative stomatitis, gingivitis, or periodontitis
  • Unexplained anemia (hemoglobin <8 g/dL)
  • Neutropenia (neutrophils <500 cells/µL)
  • Chronic thrombocytopenia (platelets <50,000 cells/µL)

Clinical Stage 4
  • HIV wasting syndrome, as defined by the CDC (see Table 1, above)
  • Pneumocystis pneumonia
  • Recurrent severe bacterial pneumonia
  • Chronic herpes simplex infection (orolabial, genital, or anorectal site for >1 month or visceral herpes at any site)
  • Esophageal candidiasis (or candidiasis of trachea, bronchi, or lungs)
  • Extrapulmonary tuberculosis
  • Kaposi sarcoma
  • Cytomegalovirus infection (retinitis or infection of other organs)
  • Central nervous system toxoplasmosis
  • HIV encephalopathy
  • Cryptococcosis, extrapulmonary (including meningitis)
  • Disseminated nontuberculosis mycobacteria infection
  • Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
  • Candida of the trachea, bronchi, or lungs
  • Chronic cryptosporidiosis (with diarrhea)
  • Chronic isosporiasis
  • Disseminated mycosis (e.g., histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, penicilliosis)
  • Recurrent nontyphoidal Salmonella bacteremia
  • Lymphoma (cerebral or B-cell non-Hodgkin)
  • Invasive cervical carcinoma
  • Atypical disseminated leishmaniasis
  • Symptomatic HIV-associated nephropathy
  • Symptomatic HIV-associated cardiomyopathy
  • Reactivation of American trypanosomiasis (meningoencephalitis or myocarditis)
HIV AIDS treatment is not complicated, knowing what drugs you are taking, how they work against HIV, and why it is so important to take them as prescribed (on time, with or without food, etc.) can really help in the fight against HIV. HIV AIDS treatment is safer, if your treatment consists of toxic free, side-effect free medications. HIV AIDS treatment becomes more comfortable, if your treatment doesn’t ask for switching on to new drug combination because of drug resistance. HIV AIDS treatment is not complicated, knowing what drugs you are taking, how they work against HIV, and why it is so important to take them as prescribed (on time, with or without food, etc.) can really help in the fight against HIV. HIV AIDS treatment is safer, if your treatment consists of toxic free, side-effect free medications. HIV AIDS treatment becomes more comfortable, if your treatment doesn’t ask for switching on to new drug combination because of drug resistance.